Python Patterns: Enum

A drawing of a red and white snake taken from Plate LXXXIII from Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri volume 1.

Things often come in sets, for example, States, Pokémon, Playing cards, etc.

Each set has items that belong to them (like California, Charizard, Jack of Clubs) and checking if an item is a valid member is a common task. Some collections (playing cards, for example) are also orderable; twos come before fives which come before Kings.

There are many ways to represent members from these sets in Python:

But is "PR" a valid state? Is Pokemon("Digimon") a member of Pokemon? Is ("Lotus", "Black") a playing card? We could keep a separate set() of all valid members to check, but then we have to maintain it.

Thankfully, Python provides a way to create these sets and their members at the same time: enumerations, or enums.

Playing Cards

Without using enums we might implement a standard playing card as follows:

class PlayingCard:
  def __init__(self, suit, rank):
    self.suit = suit
    self.rank = rank

  def __rank_to_value(self):
    """ Convert face cards to integer values. """
    if rank == "A":
      self.__value = 14
    elif rank == "K":
      self.__value = 13
    ... # etc.
    # Numbered cards are easy
      self.__value = self.rank

  def __lt__(self, other):
    return self.__value < other.__value

  def __eq__(self, other):
    return self.__value == other.__value

This class works with the standard comparison operators (thanks to the @total_ordering decorator, which I discuss in another post), but to do so we had to write a bit of an annoying __rank_to_value() function; otherwise Aces and Kings would be tough to compare to 2s and 3s!

With that done, we can now declare cards easily enough:

ace_of_spades    = PlayingCard("Spade", "A")
king_of_hearts   = PlayingCard("Heart", "K")
eight_of_spades  = PlayingCard("Spades", 8)
eight_of_clubs   = PlayingCard("Club", "8")
my_favorite_card = PlayingCard("Stars", 85)

Did you catch all the errors? We could write some error checking in the class, but it would again be a bit tedious. Instead, let’s implement this using enums. Enums will let us represent the suits and ranks, check that they are valid, and order based on value, without writing a lot of extra code.

Playing Cards with Enums

An enum has exactly the properties we want:

First, we define the suits:

from enum import Enum, auto

class CardSuit(Enum):
    """ Playing card suits. """
    CLUBS = auto()
    DIAMONDS = auto()
    HEARTS = auto()
    SPADES = auto()

The function auto() sets the values and insures that they are unique. The members are not orderable (so CardSuit.CLUBS > CardSuit.DIAMONDS will raise an error), but do have equality (so CardSuit.CLUBS != CardSuit.DIAMONDS works). We can also test membership easily, allowing us to ensure only valid suits are accepted.

An example of some of the properties:

hearts = CardSuit.HEARTS
clubs = CardSuit.CLUBS
stars = "stars"

# We can test equality
hearts != stars  # True

# And we can test membership
isinstance(stars, CardSuit)  # False

Second, we define a CardValue, this time using IntEnum because we want the values to be comparable.

from enum import IntEnum, unique

class CardRank(IntEnum):
    """ Playing card values. They are order able as excepted:
    2 < 3 < ... < king < ace.
    TWO = 2
    THREE = 3
    ... # etc.
    TEN = 10
    JACK = 11
    QUEEN = 12
    KING = 13
    ACE = 14

The IntEnums are orderable so CardRank.TEN < CardRank.KING. The decorator @unique adds a check that makes sure we haven’t double assigned any values.

Now the card class is easy to implement:

Class PlayingCard:
  def __init__(self, suit, rank):
    # Check that the suit is valid
    if not isinstance(suit, CardSuit):
      raise ValueError("{} is an invalid CardSuit.".format(suit))
    self.suit = suit

    # Check that the rank is valid
    if not isinstance(rank, CardRank):
      raise ValueError("{} is an invalid CardRank.".format(rank))
    self.rank = rank

  def __lt__(self, other):
    return self.rank < other.rank

  def __eq__(self, other):
    return self.rank == other.rank

It is now much easier to catch errors in our card definitions:

ace_of_spades    = PlayingCard(CardSuit.SPADES, CardRank.ACE)
king_of_hearts   = PlayingCard(CardSuit.HEARTS, CardRank.KING)
my_favorite_card = PlayingCard("Stars", 85)  # Obviously wrong

Not only are they obvious by eye ("Stars" is clearly not a CardSuit), but the runtime will even raise an error!